Pharmacology

Chemotherapy of Malignancy

CANCER ·         Cancer is the uncontrolled proliferation and abnormal multiplication of cells within the body. ·         A mass of tissue formed as a result of; o   Abnormal o   Excessive o   Uncoordinated o   Autonomous and o   purposeless o   Proliferation of cells THE CELL CYCLE ·         Malignant cells go through normal mitosis but synthesize DNA and divide …

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Bioassay

BIOASSAY ·         Bio-living, assay-test ·         It is the process of determining the potency of the drug by using suitable biological system like animals, tissues, microbes etc. PRINCIPLE OF BIOASSAY ·         To compare the test substance with the International Standard preparation (IP, BP, USP) of the same. ·         To find out how much test substance is …

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Insulin and hypoglycemic drugs

Insulin and hypoglycemic drugs Diabetes mellitus ·         It is chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a high blood glucose concentration (Hyperglycemia). MAJOR TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS Type-I diabetes Type-II diabetes ·         Body no longer able to produce insulin. ·         Usually develops during childhood, but develops at any age. ·         Still producing insulin, but it does not …

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Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology

Hormone ·         Hormone produce intense biological activity that is produced by specific cells in the body and it transported through circulation on its target cells. Body function Major regulator hormones ·         Fuel ·         Insulin, glucagon, growth hormone ·         Metabolic rate ·         Tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine ·         Somatic growth ·         Growth hormone, insulin ·         Sex and reproduction ·         …

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Autacoids

Autacoids Definition ·         Autacoid is derived from two word Autos means “Self” and Akos means “healing substance”. ·     Autacoids are the biological substance that release from the cell is response to variety of stimuli to produce physiological and pathological responses locally. ·         A hormone called local hormone that are produced by specific cells, and …

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DRUGS ACTING ON THE KIDNEY (DIURETICS)

DRUGS ACTING ON THE KIDNEY PHYSIOLOGY OF URINE FORMATION ·         Urine formation begins from glomerular filtration. ·         Normally about 180 liters of fluid is filtrate every day. ·         All blood   constitutions are filtrated at the glomerulus. ·         More than 99% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in the tubules. ·         About 1.85 liters of urine …

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Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) [Angina Pectoris]

Coronary artery disease is the most common heart disease and most common cause of death worldwide. According to WHO 3-7 million people die from coronary artery disease every year. An estimated data that CAD is responsible for about 10% disability-adjusted life years in low income countries and 18% in high income countries. The most common …

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Drugs used in the CHF

1.       The non-glycoside positive ionotropic drugs is: a)       Digoxin b)       Strophantin K c)       Dobutamine d)       Digitoxin 2.       This drug inhibits breakdown of cAMP in vascular smooth muscle: a)       Digoxin b)       Dobutamine c)       Amrinone d)       Dopamine 3.       Mechanism of action of digitalis is: a)       Inhibits Na+ K+ ATPase b)       Inhibit Na+ H+ ATPase c)       Active metabolites …

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