INTRODUCTION TO INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?

·         Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the study of the composition, structure, and properties of the matter and its changes from one state to another state.

o    Composition

o    Structure

o    Properties

o    Changes etc…..

BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY

1)       Organic chemistry

2)       Inorganic chemistry

3)       Physical chemistry

4)       Biochemistry

5)       Analytical chemistry

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

·         Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with organic compound.

·         It mainly deals with covalent compounds.

·         Deals with organic chemical reactions such as combustion, fermentation, hydrogenation etc.

·         Allows to research mainly on biological material.

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

·         Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with inorganic compound.

·         It mainly deals with ionic compounds.

·         Deals with organic chemical reactions such as oxidation, cyclization etc.

·         Allows to research mainly on non-living material.

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

·         Branch of chemistry concerned with interactions and transformations of materials with the principles of physics.

BIOCHEMISTRY

·         It is the branch of chemistry which deals with the various molecules that occurs in the living cells and organisms and with their chemical reaction.

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

·         It is the science of extraction, identification, and quantitation of an unknown sample.

·         It also deals with methods for determining the chemical composition of samples.

·         Example:

o    Human genome project

o    Environmental analysis

o    Forensic science.

PHARMACOPOEIA

·         Derived from Greek word ‘Pharmakon’ means drug and ‘Poiea’ means to make.

·         It is a legal, reference, and official book issued by recognized authorities usually appointed by Government of each country.

·         It comprises list of pharmaceutical substances, formulae along with their description and standards.

·         List of pharmacopoeia: IP, BP, USP, Chinese, Russian, Spanish etc.

INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA

·         First official Pharmacopeia of India was introduced in 1868 which was edited by Edward John Waring.

·         Before independence the British pharmacopoeia was used in the India.

·         In 1946 the Indian Pharmacopeial list was prepared.

·         Committee under chairmanship of Sir R. N. Chopra along with other nine members were prepared “The Indian Pharmacopeial list”.

·         It was prepared by Dept. of Health, Govt. of India, Delhi in 1946.

·         In 1948 Government of India appointed an Indian Pharmacopeia committee for preparing “Pharmacopeia of India”

·         Tenure of this committee was five years.

·         Indian Pharmacopeial committee under chairmanship of Dr. B. N. Ghosh Published first edition of IP in 1955.

IP FIRST EDITION

·         It is written in English & official titles of monographs given in Latin.

·         It covers 986 monographs.

·         Supplement to this edition was published in 1960.

SECOND EDITION

·         Second edition of IP was published in 1966 under the chairmanship of Dr. B. Mukkerji.

·         Official titles of monographs given in English.

·         Dosage was expressed in Metric system.

·         For Tablets and Injections “USUAL STRENGTH” have been given.

·         Formulations of the drugs were given immediately after the monograph of drugs.

·         274 monographs from IP 55 & their supplement were deleted.

·         93 new monographs were added.

·         Supplement to this edition was published in 1975.

·         126 new monographs have been included & 250 monographs have been amended.

·         Cholera vaccine has been deleted.

THIRD EDITION

·         Third edition of IP was published in 1985 with two volumes & nine appendices.

  • 261 new monographs have been added.
  • 450 monographs were deleted.
  • Addendum (supplement) I to IP was published in 1989 was 46 new monographs added and 126 amended.
  • Addendum II was published in 1991 was 62 new monographs added and 110 amended.

FOURTH EDITION

·         Fourth edition of IP was published in 1996 under the chairmanship of Dr. Nityanand.

  • It has been made effective from 1st December 1996.
  • It covered 1149 monographs and 123 appendices.
  • It includes 294 new monographs & 110 monographs have been deleted.
  • Addendum I has been made effective from 31st December 2000 were 42 new monographs have been added.
  • Addendum II has been made effective from 30th June 2003 were 19 new monographs have been added.
  • The veterinary supplement to IP 1996 contains 208 monographs & four appendices.

FIFTH EDITION

·         Fifth edition of IP was published in 2007 & addendum to this edition was published in 2008.

  • IP 2007 is presented in Three Volumes.
  • Volume One contains general notices & general chapters.
  • Volume Two & Three contains general monographs on drug substances, dosage forms & Pharmaceutical aids.

SIXTH EDITION

·         Sixth edition of IP is published in 2010.

  • The 6th edition of the Indian Pharmacopoeia 2010 is published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC)
  • This edition would be effective from 1st September, 2010.
  • The Indian Pharmacopoeia 2010 is presented in three volumes.
  • Volume I contains the Notices, Preface, the Structure of the IPC, Acknowledgements, Introduction, and the General Chapters.
  • Volume II contains the General Notice, General Monographs on Dosage Forms and Monographs on drug substances, dosage forms and pharmaceutical aids (A to M).
  • Volume III contains Monographs on drug substances, dosage forms and pharmaceutical aids (N to Z).
  • Followed by Monographs on Vaccines and Immunosera for Human use, Herbs and Herbal products, Blood and blood- related products, Biotechnology products and Veterinary products.
  • The scope of the Pharmacopoeia has been extended to include products of biotechnology, indigenous herbs and herbal products, veterinary vaccines and additional antiretroviral drugs and formulations, inclusive of commonly used fixed-dose combinations. Standards for new drugs and drugs used under National Health Programmes are added and the drugs as well as their formulations not in use now a day are, omitted from this edition.
  • The number of monographs of Excipients, Anticancer drugs, Herbal products and antiretroviral drugs has been increased in this edition.
  • Monographs of Vaccines and Immunosera are also upgraded in view of development of latest technology in the field.
  • A new chapter on Liposomal products and a monograph of Liposomal Amphotericin B injection is an added advantage in view of latest technology adopted for drug delivery.
  • A chapter on NMR is incorporated in Appendices.
  • The chapter on microbial contamination is also updated to a great extent to harmonies with prevailing international requirements.

SEVENTH EDITION

·         The seventh edition of the Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP 2014) is published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) on behalf of the Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

  • The Indian Pharmacopoeia 2014 is presented in four volumes. The scope of the Pharmacopoeia has been extended to include additional anticancer drugs & antiretroviral drugs and formulations, products of biotechnology, indigenous herbs and herbal products, veterinary vaccines.
  • The IP 2014 incorporates 2550 monographs of drugs out of which 577 are new monographs consisting of APIs, excipients, dosage forms and herbal products etc.
  •  A list of 577 New Monographs not included in IP-2010 and its Addendum-2012 but added in this edition containing 313 New Monographs on drug substances, Dosage forms & Pharmaceutical aids (A to Z), 43 New Drugs Substances Monographs, 10 Antibiotic Monographs, 31 Herbal Monographs, 05 Vaccines & immunosera for human use, 06 Insulin Products, 07 Biotechnology Products etc. along with the 19 new General Chapters.
  •  19 New Radiopharmaceutical Monographs & 1 General chapters is first time being included in this edition.
  • This edition of Indian Pharmacopoeia-2014 is now under printing and will be available to stakeholders probably in Sept.2013, before three months of its effective date, i.e. 1st Jan. 2014.

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