November 2021

Cardiac arrhythmia

A cardiac arrhythmia is define as abnormal electrical rhythm of the heart or abnormal impulse generation or conduction of electrical impulses responsible for membrane depolarization. Pathogenesis ·         The cardiac cycle is normally initiated by an electrical discharge from SA node. ·         The atria and ventricles then activated sequentially as electrical depolarization passes through specialized conducting …

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) MCQ

1)       Acetylcholine is not a specific neurotransmitter at: a)       Sympathetic ganglia b)       Sympathetic ganglionic nerve endings c)       Parasympathetic ganglia d)       Parasympathetic postganglionic nerve endings. 2)       Muscarinic receptor are located in: a)       Autonomic ganglia b)       Skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions c)       Autonomic effector cells d)       Sensory carotid sinus baroreceptor zone 3)       Location of M2 cholinoreceptor: a)       Heart …

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Pharmacology Drugs Classification

Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system Cholinergic drugs (Parasympathomimetic) Cholinergic agonist A.      Cholinester ·         Acetylcholine ·         Carbachol ·         Bethanechol ·         Methacholine   B.      Alkaloids ·         Muscarine ·         Pilocarpine ·         Arecholine Anti-cholinesterase A.      Reversible a)       Carbamate ·   Physostigmine (Eserine) ·   Neostigmine ·   Pyridostigmine ·   Rivastigmine ·   Edrophonium ·   Donepezil ·   Galantamine b)      Acridine ·   Tacrine B.      …

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Lipids ·         Lipids are derived from Greek word i.e. Lipos means fats. ·         Lipids are the biological molecules that are soluble in organic solvents (i.e. alcohol, ether etc.) but insoluble in aqueous solution, or potentially related to fatty acids and utilized by the living cells. ·         Lipids are not polymers (because they are not build …

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Drugs used in congestive heart failure

A disorder in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently throughout the body. Sign and symptoms ·         Dilate pupils ·         Skin becomes pale, gray colour ·         Can’t breathe unless sitting up ·         Cough ·         Decrease BP ·         Nausea and vomiting ·         Edema ·         Anxiety ·         Failing oxygen saturation ·         Fatigue ·         Decrease …

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Adrenergic System

Adrenergic system ·         The adrenergic drugs are activate the adrenergic receptor or adrenoreceptor by stimulating nor epinephrine (Nor adrenaline) or Epinephrine (Adrenaline). ·         It is also known as sympathomimetic. ·         The drugs that are blocks the activation of adrenergic receptor are named as sympatholytic. ·         The sympathomimetic acts on adrenergic receptor either directly (Direct-acting-agonist) or …

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Anti-cholinergic drug

ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUG ·         Anticholinergics are those antagonize the effect of neurotransmitter (Ach) on autonomic effectors and in the CNS. CLASSIFICATION 1.      Natural alkaloid e.g. Atropine, Hyoscine (Scopolamine) 2.      Semisynthetic derivatives e.g. Homatropine, Atropine Methonitrate, Hyoscine butyl bromide, Ipratropium bromide, Tiotropium bromide 3.      Synthetic derivatives A.    Mydriatics: e.g. Cyclopentolate, Tropicamide B.     Quaternary Compound e.g. Propantheline, Oxyphenonium, …

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Cholinergic drugs (Cholinomimetic, Para-sympathomimetic)

Cholinergic drugs (Cholinomimetic, Para-sympathomimetic) ·         The drugs which produced action similar to that of the Acetyl choline (Ach), either by interacting with cholinergic receptor (Cholinergic antagonist) or by increasing availability of Ach at these site (Anti-cholinesterase) Cholinergic transmission  1)      Synthesis ·         Ach is synthesized in the cytoplasm from Acetyl-CoA and choline by the catalytic action …

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Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary physiological processes (HR, BP, Respiration, Digestion, and Sexual arousal etc.). Dash SmrutiranjanHi….!! My name is Smrutiranjan Dash, From Odisha, India. Professionally I am Assistant Professor  at The Pharmaceutical College, Barpali, Odisha, department of Pharmacology.