• Biohemistry

    Tricarboxylic acid cycle/Krebs (TCA) Cycle / Citric acid cycle

    TCA is the most important metabolic pathway for the energy supply to the biological system. About 65-70% of the ATP is synthesized in Krebs cycle. Citric acid cycle essentially involves the oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2 and H2O Proposed by Hans Adolf Krebs in 1937. Oxygen consumption in pigeon breast muscle. Nobel Prize 1953. The citric acid cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. Reactions of citric acid cycle Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate from glycolysis is link between glycolysis and TCA cycle. Convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. 1. Formation of citrate The cycle is starts with condensation of acetyl CoA…

  • Biohemistry

    Metabolism of carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate metabolism Carbohydrates are the major source of energy in living cells. The monosaccharide glucose is the central molecule in carbohydrate metabolism since all the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism are connected with it. The glucose is synthesized form non-carbohydrate precursors and it stored in the form of glycogen, when the body is required glucose it release from the glycogen. Major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway) The oxidation of glucose to pyruvate and lactate. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle) The oxidation of acetyl CoA to carbohydrate It is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats, or amino acids, through acetyl CoA. Gluconeogenesis Synthesis…

  • Biohemistry

    Protein & Amino acid

    Protein The term protein is derived from the Greek word proteios, meaning holding the first place. Proteins are the most abundant organic molecules of the living system. They occur in every part of the cell and constitute about 50% of the cellular dry weight. Proteins form the fundamental basis of the structure and function of life. Function of protein Protein is the major source of energy. Protein plays a vital role in the maintenance of body tissue, development, and repair. Protein produces enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body. Protein is involved in some hormonal function that helps to regulate body function and growth. Elemental composition…

  • Biohemistry

    Lipids

    Lipids Lipids are derived from Greek word i.e. Lipos means fats. Lipids are the biological molecules that are soluble in organic solvents (i.e. alcohol, ether etc.) but insoluble in aqueous solution, or potentially related to fatty acids and utilized by the living cells. Lipids are not polymers (because they are not build from monomers). Classification of lipids Function of lipids Storage of energy. Due to high energy value it is the important dietary compounds. Fats stores in adipose tissue, where it is serves as a thermal insulator in the subcutaneous tissue and around certain organs. Structural components of biological membranes (lipoproteins, phospholipids and sphingolipids). Act as a carrier of lipid…

  • Biohemistry

    Carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis. They serves as the major source of chemical energy for living organism (e.g. sugar and starch), as well as important constituents of supporting tissue (e.g. cellulose). It is the most abundant organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Beside these elements carbohydrate may contain other elements like nitrogen, phosphorous, Sulphur etc. Carbohydrate literally obtain from “hydration of carbon”. The empirical formula of carbohydrate is (C.H2O)n. Carbohydrate contributes a major role in our food source and they are abundantly or sufficiently found both animal and plant source. Functions of carbohydrates Energy supply for…

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