• Pharmacology

    Pharmacodynamics

    Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics is derived from the Greek word i.e. “Pharmacon” means Drugs and “Dynamics” means Action. It is the study of biochemical and physiological effects of drug and their mechanism of action at the organ level and cellular level. “What the drugs do to the body when they administered”. Site of drugs action Extracellular Cellular Intracellular Principle/types of drugs action Stimulation The enhancement of the activity of specialized cells. Example: Adrenaline stimulates the heart, pilocarpine stimulates salivary glands. Excessive stimulation is often followed by depression of that function. For example, a high dose of picrotoxin (CNS stimulant) produces convulsions followed by coma and respiratory depression. Depression The specialized cells selectively…

  • Biohemistry

    Metabolism of carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate metabolism Carbohydrates are the major source of energy in living cells. The monosaccharide glucose is the central molecule in carbohydrate metabolism since all the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism are connected with it. The glucose is synthesized form non-carbohydrate precursors and it stored in the form of glycogen, when the body is required glucose it release from the glycogen. Major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway) The oxidation of glucose to pyruvate and lactate. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle) The oxidation of acetyl CoA to carbohydrate It is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats, or amino acids, through acetyl CoA. Gluconeogenesis Synthesis…

  • Pharmacology

    Eicosanoids (Prostaglandins)

    Eicosanoids Prostaglandin (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are derived from polyunsaturated essential fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms. 1930: Human semen – contracts uterus and other smooth muscles (SM) to cause fall in BP. The prostaglandin was derived from the prostate. 1970: Aspirin like drugs inhibit PG synthesis Thromboxanes (TX) and Prostacyclin (PGI) Bergstrom, Samuelsson and Vane got the Nobel Prize in 1982 for their work on PGs and LTs. Chemistry Chemically, PGs may be considered to be derivatives of prostanoic acid, though prostanoic acid does not naturally occur in the body. PGs are designated in series as – A, B, C ….I etc. depending on ring structure and substitution Each…

  • Pharma Jurisprudence

    List of schedule as per drugs and cosmetic act 1948

    Schedule Details Schedule A Forms and application Schedule B Fees for test or analysis by the central drugs laboratories or state drugs laboratories. Schedule C Biological and special products Schedule C (I) Other special products Schedule D List of drugs exempted from the provision of import of drugs. Schedule D (I) Details information and undertaking application (Form 40) filled by manufacturer for a registration certificate. This information, secrete in nature. Schedule D (II) Information required to be submitted by the manufacturer with the application form for the registration of bulk drug or bulk formulation or special product for its import with in geographical boundary. These may also secrete in nature.…

  • Biohemistry

    Protein & Amino acid

    Protein The term protein is derived from the Greek word proteios, meaning holding the first place. Proteins are the most abundant organic molecules of the living system. They occur in every part of the cell and constitute about 50% of the cellular dry weight. Proteins form the fundamental basis of the structure and function of life. Function of protein Protein is the major source of energy. Protein plays a vital role in the maintenance of body tissue, development, and repair. Protein produces enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body. Protein is involved in some hormonal function that helps to regulate body function and growth. Elemental composition…

  • Pharmacology

    Autacoid (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin))

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) Serotonin and enteramine both are 5-hydroxytryptamine, a monoamine neurotransmitter, and are derived from tryptophan. About 90% of the body contains 5-HT is localized in the intestine and the rest are in platelets and the brain. It also found in other animals and plants; Animals: invertebrates and mollusks, arthropods, snake and bee venom/sting. Plants: plants: tomato, pear, banana & pineapple. Synthesis storage and destruction It is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan. Tryptophan converted to 5-hydroxytryptophan with the help of enzyme hydroxylase. 5-HTP decarboxylase to produce 5-HT. The decarboxylase is non-specific, acts on DOPA as well as 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to produce DA and 5-HT respectively. It is degraded…

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